Version 25.7.2017

 

Litera Ar-Ax

 

 

Archer, James J.:

CS-BrigGen; 1817- † 4.10.1864 Richmond; stammte aus Maryland, Princeton Graduate; Rechtsanwalt; Veteran des Mexiko-Krieges; US-Berufsoffizier,

 

Archer war Rechtsanwalt gewesen, quitting his law practise in 1855 to join the Regular Army in 1855 without the benefit to a West Point education (vgl. Newton: McPherson's Ridge, a.a.O., S. 26).

 

Captain 9th US-Infantry; er resigned am 14.5.1861 und schloß sich der CSA an; seit Herbst 1861 Col 5th Texas Infantry in Hood's Brigade; BrigGen 3.6.1862; *Archer's Brigade in Hill's Light Division im Battle of Cedar Mountain (Battles and Leaders Vol. II, S. 496; Hassler: AP Hill, a.a.O., S. 79; Freeman: Lee's Lieutenants, a.a.O., S. 296).

 

Archer’s Brigade umfaßte 1862 folgende Regimenter (vgl. Krick: Cedar Mountain, a.a.O., S. 362):

- 1st Tennessee Infantry (Col Peter *Turney)

- 7th Tennessee Infantry (Major S. G. *Shepard)

- 14th Tennessee Infantry (Col W. A. *Forbes)

- 5th Alabama Battalion (Captain Thomas Bush)

- 19th Georgia Infantry (Captain F. M. *Johnson)

 

Im Battle of Chancellorsville am 3.5.1863 umfaßte Archer's Brigade folgende Regimenter (vgl. Sears: Chancellorsville, a.a.O., S. 317):

- 1st Regiment Tennessee Infantry

- 7th Regiment Tennessee Infantry

- 14th Regiment Tennessee Infantry

- 13th Regiment Alabama Infantry

- 5th Alabama Battalion

 

1863 im Battle of Gettysburg umfaßte Archer's Brigade folgende Einheiten (vgl. Newton: McPherson's Ridge, a.a.O., S. 26):

- 5th Alabama Battalion

- 13th Alabama Infantry

- 1st Tennessee Infantry

- 7th Tennessee Infantry

- 14th Tennessee Infantry

 

Archer's Brigade captured a key position at Hazel Grove on 3.5.1863, but the engagement, Archer noted, cost „in killed & wounded more than a forth of my brigade ...“. Overlooked after the battle was the fact that Archer had lost control of his regiments in tangled terrain, to be saved only by the quick thinking of the 1st Tennessee's colonel Newton George (vgl. Newton: McPherson's Ridge, a.a.O., S. 26).

 

Archer’s Brigade gehörte im Sommer 1863 als 3rd Brigade zur 2nd Division Henry Heth III Army Corps LtGen Ambrose P. Hill Lee’s Army of the Potomac. Die Regimenter bestanden aus Veteranen, waren aber sehr ausgedünnt und hatte nur eine Stärke von durchschnittlich 240 Mann (vgl. Martin: Gettysburg, a.a.O., S. 61); Archer’s Brigade bestand aus folgenden Regimentern (vgl. Pfanz: Gettysburg, a.a.O., S. 463):

- 13th Alabama Infantry Col B. D. Fry

- 5th Alabama Infantry Battalion Major A. S. Van de Graaff

- 1st Tennessee Infantry (Provisional Army) Major Felix G. Buchanan

- 7th Tennessee Infantry LtCol S. G. Shepard

- 14th Tennessee Infantry Captain B. L. Philipps

 

*Archer's Brigade (Heth's Division of Hill's 3rd Corps) in der Schlacht von Gettysburg; Archer war am 1. Tag bei McPherson's Woods gegen die *Iron Brigade eingesetzt (vgl. Martin: Gettysburg, a.a.O., S. 61), erlitt schwere Verluste und geriet in Gefangen­schaft (festgenommen durch Privat Patrick Mahoney 2nd Wisconsin); in Kriegsgefangenschaft über ein Jahr, seine Gesundheit wurde hierdurch zerstört; nach der Entlassung wurde er am 9.8.1864 der Army of Tennessee zugeordnet und am 19.8.1864 der Army of Northern Virginia. Archer starb am 4.10.1864 in Richmond.

 

Photo:

- Gettysburg, Voices of the Civil War, a.a.O., S. 40

- BrigGen James Archer (Wikimedia)

 

Documents/Literature::

- **Childs, Henry T.: „Archer's Brigade at Chancellorsville“; Confederate Veteran 28 (1920), P. 220-221

- **Hopkins, C. A. Porter (ed.): The James J. Archer Letters: A Marylander in the Civil War, Part 1 (continued from March 1961, p. 93); in: Maryland Historical Magazine vol. 56 Nr. 2, Juni 1961, S. 125 ff.

- **Storch, Marc and Beth: "What a Deadly Trap We Were In: Archer's Brigade on July 1, 1863"; in: Gettysburg Magazine Nr. 6

 

 

Archer, James W.:

US-1stLt and Adjutant; Co. A, 59th Regiment Indiana Infantry und Adjutant (Co. F&S) (vgl. National Park Soldiers M540 Roll 2).

 

Archer received the Medal of Honor on 25.8.1897 for his actions at the Second Battle of Corinth on 3.-4.10.1862, where he voluntarily took command of another regiment, with the consent of one or more of his seniors, who were present, rallied the command, and led it in the assault (vgl. National Park Soldiers, Medal of Honor, Stichwort James W. Archer).

 

 

Ardrey, John W.:

US-Pvt; Co. K, 111th Regiment Illinois Infantry (vgl. National Park Soldiers M539 Roll 2); original filed under 'John W. Ardery'.

 

 

Ardrey, Robert G.:

US-Sergeant; 111th Regiment Illinois Infantry (vgl. Ardrey, Robert G.: "Civil War Letters of Robert G. Ardrey, 111th Illinois Infantry." Compelled Joseph L. Eisendrath, Jr. Typed Ma­nuscript. Illinois State Historical Library, Springfield / Illinois; Anm.: bei National Park Soldiers not mentioned).

 

Documents/Literature::

- **Ardrey, Robert G.: "Civil War Letters of Robert G. Ardrey, 111th Illinois Infantry." Compelled Joseph L. Eisendrath, Jr. Typed Ma­nuscript. Illinois State Historical Library, Springfield / Illinois

 

 

Armistead, Hesley:

CS-Captain; Co G 4th Alabama Infantry (gefallen 1st Cold Harbor)

 

 

Armistead, Lewis A.:

CS-+++Gen; West Point Jahrgang 1833: nicht graduiert (vgl. Ballard: Pemberton, a.a.O. S. 20); Teilnahme am Mexiko-Krieg, sein späterer Vorgesetzter George A. Pickett beobachtet mit Bewunderung einen Sturmangriff Lieutenants Armistead auf die Zitadelle von Chapultepec (vgl. Longacre: Pickett, a.a.O., S. 25)

 

 

Armstrong, Frank Crawford:

CS-Col, geboren 1835 auf Choctaw Agency im Indian Territory, war Armstrong einer der wenigen Offiziere, die Truppen auf beiden Seiten des Bürgerkriegs kommandiert hatten. Der Berufsoffizier war bei 1st Bull Run Captain der 2nd US Dragoons, hatte anschlie­ßend um seine Entlassung gebeten und sich dem Süden angeschlossen;

 

Im März 1863 war Armstrong Brigadekommandeur von Armstrong's Cavalry Brigade in William H. 'Red' Jackson's 2nd Cavalry Di­vision in Earl Van Dorn's First Confederate Cavalry Corps und eingesetzt in Tennessee gegen den Vorstoß der US.Truppen von Nash­ville nach Süden. Jackson's Cavalry Division bestand aus den Kavalleriebrigaden von BrigGen Frank C. Armstrong und Col John W. Whitfield sowie Captain Huston *King's 2nd Battery Missouri Light Artillery. Gefecht gegen Coburn's Brigade am 5.3.1863 bei Thompson's Station (vgl. Welcher / Ligget: Coburn's Brigade, a.a.O., S. 56).

 

Kurz nach dem Battle of Thompson‘s Station vom 5.3.1863 gehörte Armstrong‘s Brigade ab März 1863 zur neu aufgestellten For­rest‘s Cavalry Division (vgl. Welcher / Ligget: Coburn's Brigade, a.a.O., S. 101)

 

Armstrong kommandierte Crawford’s Brigade (1st und 2nd Mississippi Cavalry, Ballentine’s Regiment, Teile von Captain Houston King’s Missouri Battery) während Sherman’s Kampagne gegen Atlanta 1864 am Chattahoochee und ging mit seiner Brigade gegen Stoneman’s *Raid auf Moore’s Bridge vor (Evans, Sherman’s Horsemen, S. 60 f. m.w.N.).

 

Photo:

- Davis / Wiley: Photographic History, vol. 2: Vicksburg to Appomattox, a.a.O., S. 333

- Wills: Forrest, a.a.O., S. nach S. 42

 

Documents/Literature::

- Boatner, a.a.O., S. 26

- Warner: Generals in Grey, a.a.O., S. 12-13

 

 

Armstrong, Henry S.:

USCol; New York State Militia; Col Armstrong war für die Aufstellung des 146th Regiment New York Infantry im August 1862 ver­antwortlich (vgl. Brainard: Campaigns of the One Hundred and Forty-Sixth Regiment, New York State Volunteers, a.a.O., S. 5).

 

 

Armstrong, James F.:

CS-Col; aus Alabama (?)

 

Documents/Literature::

- **Bonner, Floelle Youngblood: Col. James F. Armstrong of Montgomery County, Rendered Unusual Service to Confederacy; in: The Alabama Historical Quarterly Vol. 23, Nos. 3 and 4, Fall and Winter 1961, S. 231

 

 

Armstrong, Nelson:

US-+++; 8th New York Heavy Artillery

 

Documents/Literature::

- **Armstrong, Nelson: Nuggets of Experience: Narratives of the Sixties and Other Days with graphic Descriptions of Thrilling Perso­nal Adventures (Times Mirror, 1906)

 

 

Arn, Frederick:

US-Pvt; Co. F, 14th Regiment West Virginia Infantry (vgl. National Park soldiers M507 Roll 1); original filed under 'Arne'

 

6.3.1843 Bern/Schweiz - † 6.8.1923 Union, Pleasant County, West Virginia (vgl. findagrave.com, Abruf vom 15.10.1862).

 

 

Arn, Frederick (Fred):

US-Major; Co A, 31st Regiment Indiana Infantry; Arn trat als Captain in das Regiment ein (vgl. National Park Soldiers M540 Roll 2). Am 21.10.1861 Beförderung zum Major (vgl. www.findagrave.com, Abruf vom 15.10.2016). Arn gradierte im Juni 1861 an der University of Michigan (vgl. www.findagrave.com, Abruf vom 15.10.2016) † 7.4.1862 nach tödlicher Verwundung im Battle of Shiloh am 6.4.1862.

 

Teilnahme am Battle of Fort Donelson; er wird lobend im Report von General Lew Wallace erwähnt (vgl. OR ser. 07, p. 240; vgl. B&L, a.a.O., vol. 1, S. 450).

 

After the battle of Shiloh, Charles Milton Adams writes am 19.4.1862 a letter for Godfrey Arn (Bruder von Frederick Arn; der offen­bar nicht schreiben konnte) an Captain J. C. Johnson. It is about his brother Major Fred Arn who served in the 31st Indiana Infantry. Under General J.G. Laumann. Godfrey Arn was too young to enlist so he served as Fred's servant. „Poor Fred lost his life on that bloody field of Pitsburg Landing while gallantly leading his men. He was shot on Sunday the 6th, but lived just 24 hours longer, just long enough to learn that our men had beaten back the enemy...He died on Monday the 7th between 12 and 1 o'clock. His body was brought home by his brother John [who] was a private in the same Regt. & he was buried here last Sunday. Poor Fred has left many friends behind. The Regt. to which he belonged the 31st Ind. had 21 killed, 103 wounded & 4 missing. Total 128 out of about 450 men of the Regt. were thus disabled in this battle thus showing pretty hard fighting. The Co., Co. A of which Fred was first Capt. [U.S. military records give his rank as Major] went into battle with 40 to 50 men. Of these 3 were killed, 10 were wounded & 1 missi­ng. I shall start now immediately for the field of battle to bring home his horse and other effects. Yours, Godfrey Arn“ (aus http://civilwarjourney1862.blogspot.de/2010/12/april-19th1862.html).

 

23.3.1823 Schweiz – † gef. 7.4.1862 Shiloh/Tennessee; beerd. Montezuma Cemetery, Montezuma, Parke County/Indiana (vgl. www. findagrave.com); Bruder von Godfrey *Arn und John Arn.

 

Photo:

- Michigan University: In 1859 Les Sans Souci, which also called itself the University Band, was one of several early musical groups organized by students. Frederick Arn (far left) was killed three years later at the battle of Shiloh in the Civil War (vgl. University of Michigan, aastreets.aadl.org/taxonomy/term/1944?page=5)

 

 

Arn, Godfrey:

US-Pvt, Co. D, 133rd Regiment Indiana Infantry (100 days, 1864) (vgl. National Park Soldiers M540 Roll 2); Bruder von Major Frederic Arn und John Arn (vgl. Hinweis bei Civil War Voices, Soldiers Studies; http://www.soldierstudies.org/index.php?action=sol­dier_profile&Soldier=260 [Anm.: dort wird sein Rang fehlerhaft als Major angegeben, wohl infolge Verwechslung mit seinem Bru­der Major Frederick *Arn]).

 

Da er zu jung war, um 1861 in die Army einzutreten, begleitete er seinen Bruder Major Frederick *Arn und diente als dessen Servant (vgl. Hinweis bei civilwarjourney1862).

 

After the battle of Shiloh, Charles Milton Adams writes am 19.4.1862 a letter for Godfrey Arn (Bruder von Frederick Arn; der offen­bar nicht schreiben konnte) an Captain J. C. Johnson. It is about his brother Major Fred Arn who served in the 31st Indiana Infantry. Under General J.G. Laumann. Godfrey Arn was too young to enlist so he served as Fred's servant. „Poor Fred lost his life on that bloody field of Pitsburg Landing while gallantly leading his men. He was shot on Sunday the 6th, but lived just 24 hours longer, just long enough to learn that our men had beaten back the enemy...He died on Monday the 7th between 12 and 1 o'clock. His body was brought home by his brother John [who] was a private in the same Regt. & he was buried here last Sunday. Poor Fred has left many friends behind. The Regt. to which he belonged the 31st Ind. had 21 killed, 103 wounded & 4 missing. Total 128 out of about 450 men of the Regt. were thus disabled in this battle thus showing pretty hard fighting. The Co., Co. A of which Fred was first Capt. [U.S. military records give his rank as Major] went into battle with 40 to 50 men. Of these 3 were killed, 10 were wounded & 1 missi­ng. I shall start now immediately for the field of battle to bring home his horse and other effects. Yours, Godfrey Arn“ (aus http://civilwarjourney1862.blogspot.de/2010/12/april-19th1862.html).

 

Godfrey Arn stammte aus der Schweizer Einwanderer-Familie Arn; sein Bruder Major Frederick *Arn war noch in der Schweiz ge­boren. Bruder von John Arn (vgl. Hinweis bei Civil War Voices, Soldiers Studies; http://www.soldierstudies.org/index.php?action=soldier_profile&Soldier=260).

 

 

Arn, John:

US-Pvt, Co. A, 31st Regiment Indiana Infantry (vgl. National Park Soldiers M540 Roll 2; vgl. Grabstein im Oakland Cemetery, Montezuma, Parke County/Indiana [vgl. www. findagrave.com]) und später Pvt, Co. E, 7th Regiment Veteran Reserve Corps (vgl. National Park Soldiers M636 Roll ½).

 

John Arn stammte aus der Schweizer Einwanderer-Familie Arn; sein Bruder Major Frederick *Arn war noch in der Schweiz gebo­ren. Bruder von Godfrey Arn (vgl. Hinweis bei Civil War Voices, Soldiers Studies; http://www.soldierstudies.Org/ index.php?action=sol­dier_profile&Soldier=260 ); 1834-1906; beerd. Oakland Cemetery, Montezuma, Parke County/ Indiana (vgl. www. findagrave.com).

 

 

Arndt, Albert:

geb .in Baden [?] - † 6.-17.9.1862 Antietam; US-Major 1st New York Light Artillery Battalion "Brickel's German Light Artillery" ; 1848er und ehemaliger süddeutscher Offizier, der schon in der badischen Revolution kämpfte (vgl. Kaufmann: Deutsche im amerika­nischen Bürgerkrieg, a.a.O., S. 479).

 

kia Battle of Antietam 16.-17.9.1862; hierbei wurde Bataillonskommandeur Major Albert Arndt mortally wounded, directing one of his guns. Das Battalion bestand bei Antietam aus (aus http://civilwarintheeast.com/USA/NY/NY01arBn.php).

 

 

Arnold, D. W. C.:

US-Pvt.

 

Photo:

- Arnold, D. W. C., private in the Union Army. Na­tional Archives 111-B-5435.

 

 

Arnold, Herman:

US-Pvt; Co. D, 23rd Regiment Wisconsin Infantry (vgl. National Park Soldiers M559 Roll 1).

 

 

Arnold, John Carvel:

US-Corporal; Co. I, 49th Regiment Pennsylvania Infantry (National Park Soldiers M554 Roll 3).

 

Documents/Literature::

- Arnold, John Carvel (1833-1865) Cpl., 49th Pennsylvania Volunteers Papers, 1856-1937; Library of Congress, Civil War Manus­cripts; Washington, DC. 192 items. Includes about 40 letters from Arnold to his wife, Mar. 1864-Apr. 1865, concerning the Wilder­ness, Spotsylvania, Petersburg, and Appomattox campaigns, Sheri­dan's Shenandoah Valley Campaign, and the movement of Federal troops during Gen. Jubal Early's Washington raid. Provides detai­led accounts of the Battle of Cold Harbor (1864), the Battle of Win­chester (Sept. 1864), and the Battle of Hatcher's Run (Oct. 1864). Also contains letters by Sgt. W. Harman, John W. Snoke (83d Pennsylvania Volunteers), and H. C. Shaffer.

 

 

Arnold, Lewis G.:

++General;

 

 

Arnold, William A.:

im Mai 1861 Rekrutierungsoffizier in Providence / Rhode Island (vgl. Rhodes, Elisha Hunt: All for the Union, a.a.O., S. 4)

 

 

Arns, Louis:

US-+++; 49th Illinois Infantry

 

Documents/Literature::

- **Arns, Louis: Letter to parents (Shiloh National Military Park, Shiloh / Tennessee, 49th Illinois File)

 

 

Arnsberg, George von:

s. von *Amsberg

 

 

Arthur, Chester A.:

US-Quartermaster general for the New York State Militia; später der 21. Präsident der USA

 

Documents/Literature:

- **Arthur, Chester A.: Papers, 1843-1938; 3 rolls. Chester A. Arthur was twenty-first president of the United States and, during the Ci­vil War, quartermaster general for the New York State Militia. Most of Arthur's papers were burned at his direction the day before he died, but this small collection contains a few letters written during the war. Post-war correspondents include William T. Sherman. Mi­crofilm copy of original documents held by the Library of Congress (Univ. of Arkansas, Fayetteville: Manuscript Resources for the Civil War, Compiled by Kim Allen Scott, 1990).

 

 

Arthur, Richard:

US-Pvt; Co. A, 21st Regiment New York Cavalry (vgl. National Park Soldiers M551 Roll 3).

 

Urkunden/Documents/Literature::

- **Arthur, Richard: Letters; Auburn University, Montgomery/Alabama, Special Collections & Archives RG 507

 

 

Asbill, Jefferson J.:

CS-Pvt; Co. A, 19tr Regiment South Carolina Infantry (National park Soldiers M381 Roll 1)

 

Documents/Literature:

- Asbill, J. J. (Pvt., 19th South Carolina Volunteers) Correspondence, 1861-62. Library of Congress, Civil War Manuscripts; Wa­shington, DC. 8 items. Letters from Asbill to his wife, Dec. 29, 1861-Aug. 11, 1862, written from camps in South Carolina, Missis­sippi, and Tennessee concerning skirmishes, the election of officers, military organization, camp life, morale, and supplies. Also in­cludes a letter from J. L. Morris to Asbill, Apr. 16, 1862, concerning the movement of Confederate troops between Atlanta and Chat­tanooga

 

 

Asboth, Alexander S.:

18.12.1811 iKeszthelyHungary - † 21.1.1868 Buenos Aires; US-BrigGen; während der Pea Ridge Campaign in Frühjahr 1862 Di­visionskommandeur der 2nd Division (vgl. Shea / Hess, Pea Ridge, a.a.O.).

 

Asboth war österreichisch-ungarischer Adliger ohne militärische Ausbildung; seine militärischen Vorkriegserfahrungen beschränkten sich auf die fehlgeschlagene ungarische Revolution von 1848. Im ersten Kriegsjahr in Missouri erwies er sich fähiger Kavalleriefüh­rer (vgl. Shea / Hess, a.a.O., S. 46). US-Truppen unter Gen. *Asboth (4th Missouri Cavalry, 5th Missouri Cavalry und 1st Missouri Flying Battery) nahmen im Rahmen einer von Little Sugar Creek in westlicher Richtung unternommenen Aufklärung die Ortschaft *Benton­ville in Nord-Arkansas südlich Pea Ridge am 18.2.1862 während Curtis Pea Ridge Campaign (vgl. Shea / Hess, Pea Ridge, a.a.O., S. 45).

 

Die kleine Division umfaßte folgende Einheiten (vgl. Shea / Hess, Pea Ridge, a.a.O., S. 332):

 

- 1st Brigade Col Frederick *Schaefer

- 2nd Missouri Infantry, LtCol Bernard *Laiboldt

- 15th Missouri Infantry, Col Francis J. *Joliat

 

- Artillery:

- 1st Missouri Flying Battery, Captain Gustavus M. *Elbert

- 2nd Independent Battery, Ohio Light Artillery, Lt William B. *Chapman

 

Not brigaded:

- 3rd Missouri Infantry, Major Joseph *Conrad

- 4th Missouri Cavalry, Major Emeric *Meszaros

- 5th Missouri Cavalry, Col Joseph *Nemett

 

Photo:

- Davis / Wiley: Photographic History, Vol. 1: Fort Sumter to Gettysburg, a.a.O., S. 286

- Shea / Hess, Pea Ridge, a.a.O., S. 47

 

Documents/Literature::

- **Hess, Earl J.: „Alexander Asboth: One of Lincoln’s Hungarian Heroes?“ Lincoln Herald 84 (1982)

- **Kaufmann, Wilhelm: Die Deutschen im amerikanischen Bürgerkriege, a.a.O., S. 479

 

 

Aschman, John:

US-Pvt; Co. D, 17th Regiment Wisconsin Infantry (vgl. National Park Soldiers M559 Roll 1).

 

 

Aschman, John:

US-Pvt; Co. A, 27th Regiment Illinois Infantry (vgl. National Park Soldiers 539 Roll 3).

 

 

Aschman, John:

US-Pvt; Co. E, 12th Regiment Kentucky Cavalry (vgl. National Park Soldiers M386 Roll 1).

 

 

Aschman, Martin:

US-Pvt; Co. B, 5th Regiment Ohio Cavalry (vgl. National Park Soldiers M552 Roll 13).

 

 

Aschmann, Rudolf:

US-Captain; Co. A, 1st Regiment US-Sharpshooters (Regular Army); zunächst Pvt, zuletzt Captain Co. A (vgl. National Park Sol­diers M1290 Roll 1).

 

Aschmann verlor während der Wilderness Campaign ein Bein. Die Aschmann'sche Kompanie von 106 Mann zählte 80 Schweizer und 26 Deutsche. Sie war die Elite-Scharfschützen-Truppe der Potomac Army und die erste, die das Schnellfeuergewehr erhielt. In 18 Schlachten und Gefechten wurde die Kompanie bis auf 12 Mann heruntergebracht (vgl. Kaufmann,: Die Deutschen im Bürger­krieg, a.a.O., S. 479).

 

Documents/Literature::

- **Aschmann, Rudolf: Memoirs of a Swiss Officer in the American Civil War: Three Years in the Army of the Potomac Or A Swiss Company of Sharpshooters in the North American War (University of Michigan, 1972)

- **Aschmann, Rudolf: Drei Jahre in der Potomac-Armee; oder, Eine Schweizer Schützen-Compagnie im nordamerikanischen Kriege; von Rudolf Aschmann, Hauptmann im 1. Vereinigten Staaten Scharfschützen-Regimente. Published 1865

 

 

Ash, David L.:

US-1st Lt, geboren 1836; enlisted at Goshen 8/19/61 as Sgt. Co. A 37th Illinois Infantry; am 7.3.1862 während des Battle of Pea Ridge eingesetzt bei den Kämpfen in Morgan’s Woods (vgl. Shea / Hess, a.a.O., S. 125 mit Karte S. 123). Prom. 7/9/62 2nd Lt; prom. 10/17/63 1st Lt; trans. to Company B; must. out 3/14/65.

 

Documents/Literature::

- **Ash, David L.: Papers, US Army Military History Institute, Carlisle Barracks / Pennsylvania

 

 

Ash, Henry C.:

US-Sergeant; Co. H, 8th Regiment New Hampshire Infantry (vgl. National Park Soldiers M549 Roll 1).

 

Urkunden/Documents/Literature::

- **Ash, Henry C.: Diary; Auburn University, Montgomery/Alabama, Special Collections & Archives RG 298

 

 

Ashby, Henry Marshall:

CS-Colonel, 1836 Fauquier County / Virginia - 10.7.1868; Ashby war Cousin von CS-BrigGen Turner *Ashby Besuch des William and Mary College (in Williamsburg, Va.); um 1860 "Trader" in Chattanooga; im July 1861 stellte Ashby in Knoxville / Tennessee eine Cavalry-Company auf, die spätere Co C 4th Tennessee Cavalry Battalion, aus der später die 2nd Tennessee Cavalry entstand; Captain Co C 4th Tennessee Cavalry; 24.5.1862 Col und Regimentskommandeur der neu aufgestellten 2nd Tennessee Cavalry (vgl. Allardice: More Generals in Gray, a.a.O., S. 22).

 

Photo:

- Allardice: More Generals in Gray, a.a.O., S. 22

 

Documents/Literature::

- Allardice: More Generals in Gray, a.a.O., S. 22-23

- **Coffin, James P.: "Col. Henry M. Ashby," Confederate Veteran XIV (1906), S. 121

- **Young, Bennet H.: Confederate Wizards in the Saddle (Boston, Mass., 1915, reprint Boston 1958), S. 585

 

 

Ashby, Richard:

CS-Captain; jüngerer Bruder von Turner *Ashby; auch Richard Ashby gehörte zu Valley Cavalry, inzwischen unter dem Komman­do von Turner Ashby; Richard Ashby wurde der Nachfolger seines Bruder als Kompaniechef; gefallen am 26.6.1861 bei den Kämp­fen um die Baltimore & Ohio Railroad (vgl. vgl. McDonald: Laurel Brigade, a.a.O., S. 22).

 

 

Ashby, Turner:

CS-BrigGen; 1828-6.6.1862; Ashby war seit November 1861 als Nachfolger von Col Angus W. *McDonald Col. 7th Virginia Caval­ry: Seine Einheit stellte die Scouts in Shenandoah-Tal (vgl. Worsham, John H.: "One of Jackson's Foot Cavalry; a.a.O., S. 45); er un­terstützte Belle *Boyd in den Anfängen ihrer Karriere als CS-Kurier und Spionen (vgl. Scarborough, a.a.O., S. 13-27, 28).

 

Ashby was a Confederate General whose death in combat seemed to typify the doomed gallantry of the South's military efforts. He was from an old Virginia family. His grandfather had fought in the Revolution and father had fought in the War of 1812. Turner was opposed to secession in principle, but as a planter and grain dealer, he defended the practice of slavery. He personally organized a troop of mounted volunteers to ride to Harper's Ferry when he heard of John Brown's raid, but he arrived too late to take action. When Virginia seceeded, Ashby immediately organized another troop of horsemen that, incorporated into the 7th Virginia Cavalry, he led in the early operations in the Upper Potomac. In the spring of 1862, Ashby helped cover Jackson's retreat to Swift Run Gap, but by late May he was pursuing the retreating federal forces under General Banks. On 27 May 1862 Ashby was commissioned a briga­dier general, by which time he was commanding a cavalry brigade that was fighting rearguard actions to protect Jackson's army as it retreated from the Shenandoah Valley. On 6 June, Ashby was killed by Federal troops.

 

Ashby war völlig furchtlos und außerordentlich wagemutig, auf der anderen Seite mangelte es ihm an Organisationstalent. Dem Far­mer Ashby, der wenig Schulausbildung und keine militärische Ausbildung besaß, ging die Notwendigkeit der Disziplin, für die Jack­son bekannt war, völlig ab (vgl. Tanner: Stonewall in the Valley, a.a.O., S. 55)

 

Ashby litt sehr unter der Behandlung durch Stonewall Jackson und übersandte deshalb dem Kongreßabgeordneten A. R. *Boteler, der sowohl mit Ashby als auch mit Jackson befreundet war Ende April 1862 sein Rücktrittsgesuch. Vor dessen Eintreffen bei Boteler hat­te allerdings Jackson den Konflikt beigelegt (vgl. Krick: Conquering the Valley, a.a.O., S. 11; Ashby: Letter to A. R. Boteler; Histori­cal Society of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Simon Gratz Collection).

 

Ashby's Cavalry unterstand direkt dem Kriegsministerium und nicht Stonewall Jackson (vgl. Tanner: Stonewall in the Valley, a.a.O., S. 56).

 

Gen. Jackson hatte Zweifel an der Fähigkeit Ashby's zur Führung größerer Kavallerieeinheiten (vgl. Krick: Conquering the Valley, a.a.O., S. 20), weshalb er BrigGen George H. Steuart einen Teil der Cavalry unterstellte. Während Jackson's Valley Campaign be­schwerten sich Col. Munford (2nd Virginia Cavalry) und Col. Flournoy über mangelnde Fähigkeiten ihres Vorgesetzten Steuart's (we­gen dessen mangelhafter Führung im Battle of Winchester am 25.5.1862 und eines weiteren Führungsfehlers bei Woodstock am 2.6.1862), der sich Gen. Ewell anschloß, woraufhin Jackson das Kommando über die gesamte Cavalry erneut auf Ashby übertrug (vgl. Krick: Conquering the Valley, a.a.O., S. 20, 25; Brief Munford's an Hotchkiss v. 23.8.1896 in Hotchkiss Papers, Reel 49, Libra­ry of Congress, Washington D.C.; Pfanz: Ewell, a.a.O., S. 561 Anm. 17; Freeman: Lee's Lieutenants, a.a.O., S. 199).

 

Jackson war trotz des fehlgeschlagenen Experiments mit Steuart und der Wiedereinsetzung Ashby's dennoch gegen dessen Beförde­rung zum BrigGen. Jackson kritisierte insb. daß Ashby wenig auf Disziplin seiner Untergebenen hielt . Ashby wurde dennoch aus politischen Gründen gegen Jackson's Meinung befördert (vgl. Krick: Conquering the Valley, a.a.O., S. 25).

 

Ashby veranlaßte am 6.6.1862 die 1st New Jersey Cavalry von Col. Sir Percy *Wyndham am 6.6.1862 zu einem überhasteten und ohne Aufklärung geführten Angriff auf Turner Ashby's Cavalry nördlich Port Republik, Va. und lockte diese hierdurch in einen Hin­terhalt, bei dem Co. Wyndham gefangengenommen wurde (vgl. Krick: Conquering the Valley, a.a.O., S. 27). Bei einem Gefecht mit nachfolgenden US-Truppen von Gen. George D. Bayard, darunter das 'Bucktail Rifles' genannte Battalion von Col T. L. *Kane ist Ashby gefallen (vgl. Krick: Conquering the Valley, a.a.O., S. 28-29).

 

Documents/Literature::

- **Avirett, James B.: The Memoirs of General Turner Ashby and His Compeers (Baltimore: Selby and Dulany, 1867)

- **Clarence, Thomas: General Turner Ashby (Winchester, VA: Eddy Press Corp., 1907)

 

 

Ashcom, George:

US-Lt; 133rd Pennsylvania Infantry; schwer verwundet im Battle of Fredericksburg am 13.12.1864 im Sturm auf den Stonewall (vgl. Gallagher u.a.: Fredericksburg, a.a.O., S. 92).

 

 

Ashe, Samuel A.:

CS-+++; 19th Georgia Infantry (vgl. Krick: Cedar Mountain, a.a.O., S. 65, 407 Anm. 68; Anm. not mentioned by National Park Soldiers).

 

 

Ashe, Samuel A.:

CS-Pvt; Co. I, 18th Regiment North Carolina Infantry; formerly 8th Regiment North Carolina Infantry (vgl. National Park Soldiers M230 Roll 1).

 

Documents/Literature:

- **Ashe, Samuel A.: Papers (North Carolina Department of Archives and History, Raleigh / North Carolina)

 

 

Ashe, Samuel A.:

CS-Captain/Assistant Adjutant General; General and Staff Officers , Non-Regimental Enlisted Men, CSA (vgl. National Park Soldiers M818 Roll 1).

 

Im Sommer 1862 war Captain Ashe als Ordnance Officer in Fort Wagner / NC eingesetzt (vgl. Ashe: Life at Fort Wagner; Confederate Veteran 35 [1927], p. 254-256).

 

Documents/Literature:

- **Ashe, Samuel A.: „Life at Fort Wagner“; Confederate Veteran 35 [1927], p. 254-256

 

 

Ashley, Alexander K.:

US-Sergeant; Co. C, 97th Regiment Illinois Infantry (vgl. National Park Soldiers M539 Roll 3).

 

Documents/Literature::

- **Ashley, Alexander K.: Papers (Illinois State Historical Library, Springfield / Illinois)

 

 

Ashly, James Mitchell:

US-Politiker; Republican Congressman from Ohio, 1859-69; 1861 Chairman of the Territorial Committee; later Governor of the Ter­ritory of Montana; Ashly suchte US-Finanzminister Chase am 11.12.1861 auf (vgl. Chase: Diary, a.a.O., vom 11.12.1861 S. 50)

 

 

Ashmore, James M.:

US-Captain; im Battle of Shiloh am 6./7.4.1862 war Ashmore Regimentskommandeur der 8th Illinois Infantry; hierbei verwundet (vgl. B & L, a.a.O., vol. I S. 537).

 

 

Askew, William S.:

CS-Pvt, Co A (Newman Guards), 1st Georgia Infantry Regiment

 

Photo:

- Askew, William S., Pvt.1st Georgia Regiment, Co. A., CSA (Library of Congress,  LC-B8184-10604)

 

 

Asmussen, Charles W.:

US-Captain; Co. C, 5th Regiment Missouri State Militia Cavalry; Asmussen trat als Adjutant, Co. F&S in das Regiment ein (vgl. National Park Soldiers M390 Roll 2). Kaufmann gibt seinen Rang als Col an und nennt keinen Vornamen (vgl. Kaufmann: Deutsche im amerikanischen Bürgerkrieg, a.a.O., S. 480). Asmussen gibt seinen Rang selbst als LtCol an

 

Asmussen war ehemaliger preußischer Offizier, Stabschef des Gen. O. O. Howard. Hat sich dann in den Kämpfen in Missouri ausge­zeichnet, namentlich im Battle von Pea Ridge am 7./8. 1862 (vgl. Kaufmann: Deutsche im amerikanischen Bürgerkrieg, a.a.O., S. 480). Gen. Sigel erwähnt in seinem Report über das Battle of Pea Ridge den Captain Asmussen mehrfach (vgl. http://www. history­central.com/CivilWar/pearidge/Sigel.html) sowie Gen. Osterhaus in seinem Report vom 14.3.1862 (vgl. http://stellar-one.com/civil_war/battle_of_pea_ridge_04.htm).

 

Kam mit Gen. Sigel zur Potomac Army. Nahm seinen Abschied nach schwerer Verwundung (vgl. Kaufmann: Deutsche im amerikani­schen Bürgerkrieg, a.a.O., S. 480).

 

Zuletzt LtCol und AIG 20th Corps in der Goldsborough Campaign (vgl. Campaign maps exhibiting the line of march of the 20th Corps from Savannah, Ga. to Goldsborough, N.C., with the plans of the battle-fields of Averysborough and Bentonville, N.C., from surveys of Topographical Engineers 20th Corps.; in: Atlas zu Official Records; im Internet veröffentlicht in http:// digital.libra­ry.cornell.edu/m/moawar/waro.html).

 

 

Aspinwall, W. H.:

US-?; vgl. Welles, Diary I S. 38

 

 

Atchinson, David R.:

US-Senator aus Missouri; Unterstützer der Sklavenhaltung; Atchinson spielte eine traurige Rolle im Versuch das Kansas Territorium für den Süden zu gewinnen. Er rief seine Landsleute dazu auf, sich vorübergehend in Kansas aufzuhalten, um hierdurch die Wahlen von 1855 zu manipulieren, das Territorium als Staat des Südens in die Union aufnehmen und die Mehrheitsverhältnisse im US-Senat nach der Aufgabe der *Kansas-Nebrasca-Bill zugunsten des Südens manipulieren zu können (vgl. McPherson: Für die Freiheit, a.a.O., Kap. 5 S. 134 ff; Davis, William C.: Brother against Brother, a.a.O., S. 72 f.; Castel: Quantrill. a.a.O., S. 3).

 

Atchinson schreckte auch nicht vor dem Aufruf zu Mord und Totschlag zurück und erklärte Jefferson Davis: "Wir werden schießen, brennen und hängen müssen, aber die Sache wird bald erledigt sein. Wir sind entschlossen, die Abolitionisten zu 'mormonisieren'." (Zitat nach McPherson: Für die Freiheit, a.a.O., S. 134 m.w.N.) Atchinson veranlaßte und unterstützte die 'Border Ruffians".

 

Im Juni 1861 befand sich Atchinson bei Missouri Governor Claiborne *Jackson bei dessen Rückzug nach Südwest-Missouri vor den Streitkräften Nathaniel *Lyon's; dadurch Beobachter des Battle of Carthage am 5.7.1861 (vgl. Moneghan: Civil War on the Western Borders, a.a.O., S. 156).

 

 

Aten, Henry J.:

US-First Sergeant; Co. G, 85th Regiment Illinois Infantry (vgl. National Park Soldiers M539 Roll 3).

 

Documents/Literature::

- **Aten, Henry J.: History of the Eighty-Fifth Regiment. Comp. and pub. under the auspices of the Regimental Assocation (Hiawatha, Kan.: by the author, 1901)

 

 

Atkins, Israel G.:

US-Pvt; Co. H, 23rd Regiment Michigan Infantry (vgl. National Park Soldiers M545 Roll 1; vgl. Castel: Decision in the West, a.a.O., S. 217).

 

Documents/Literature::

- **Atkins, Israel: Letter to Parents (Michigan State University Archives; Michigan State University Library, East Lansing)

 

 

 

Atkins, Smith D.:

US-Col; Co. F&S, 92nd Regiment Illinois Mounted Infantry (vgl. National Park Soldiers M539 Roll 3).

 

Documents/Literature::

- **Atkins, Smith D.: Chickamauga: Useless, Diastrous Battle (Adress, Freeport/Ill., 1907)

- Tucker: Chickamauga, a.a.O., S. 17, 18, 27, 28, 92, 117, 140, 141, 162, 289, 290, 309,, 317-18

 

 

 

Atkinson, Archibald, jr.:

CS-Surgeon; Co. F&S, 10th Virginia Regiment Cavalry Regiment (1st Cavalry Regiment, Wise Legion) (vgl. National Park Soldiers M382 Roll 2), Co. F&S, 31st Regiment Virginia Infantry Regiment (vgl. National Park Soldiers M382 Roll 2), and the Second Army Corps of the Army of Northern Virginia.

 

1832-1903

 

Documents/Literature::

- **Atkinson, Archibald, jr: Memoirs: , ca. 1890s. 1 vol. Confederate surgeon in the Civil War. Served alternately in the Wise Legion, the 10th Virginia Cavalry Regiment, the 31st Virginia Infantry Regiment, and the Second Army Corps of the Army of Northern Virgi­nia. After the war he was a professor of materia medica and therapeutics in the College of Physicians and Surgeons in Baltimore, Ma­ryland. Memoirs written in the late 1800s, and focus exclusively on Atkinson's Civil War experiences. Full transcript available. Virgi­nia Tech, Univ. Libraries, Special Collections: Civil War guide - Manuscript Sources for Civil War Research in the Special Collectio­ns Department of the Virginia Tech Libraries Ms94-022.

 

 

Atkinson, Edward Jason:

US-Pvt; Co. D, 8th Regiment Massachusetts Infantry (9 months, 1862/63) (vgl. National Park Soldiers M554 Roll 1) und (vgl. www.findagrave. com, Inschrift d. Grabsteins auf dem Pine Grove Cemetery, Lynn/Essex County/Massachusetts, Plot Sumach Path, Lot-24 Grave -1, Abruf v. 5.3.2017) Pvt; Co. B, 4th Regiment Massachusetts Heavy Artillery (vgl. National Park Soldiers M554 Roll 1).

 

1841 - † Sept. 1911, beerd. Pine Grove Cemetery, Lynn/Essex County/Massachusetts (vgl. www.findagrave. com, Inschrift d. Grabsteins auf dem Pine Grove Cemetery, Lynn/Essex County/Massachusetts, Plot Sumach Path, Lot-24 Grave -1, Abruf v. 5.3.2017); Mary S. Brown Atkinson (vgl. www.findagrave.com, Abruf v. 5.3.2017).

 

 

Atkinson, Edmund Nathan:

CS-Col; Co. F&S, 26th Regiment Georgia Infantry; Atkinson enlisted as Adjutant of the regiment (vgl. National Park Soldiers M2256 Roll 2).

 

Atkinson was the grandson of a former president of the University of Georgia, Moses Waddel. The wealthy son of a Camden County plantation owner, Atkinson was an 1856 graduate of the Georgia Military Institute in Marietta. At the start of the war, he was one of the few people in southeastern Georgia proficient in drilling troops and moving a military command from one point to another. He was wounded at Sharpsburg and again at Fredericksburg, where he was captured while commanding the brigade. After beeing paroled and exchanged, he returned to active duty, commanding his regiment (vgl. Mingus: Flames Beyond Gettysburg, a.a.O., S. 11).

 

 

Aubery, Cullen B. 'Doc':

US-Zeitungsverkäufer; he had never been a soldier, but was fondly remembered as the young newsboy, who sold newpapers in the army camps around Washington (vgl. Herdegen/Beaudot: In the Bloody Railroad Cut, a.a.O., S. 282).

 

Vermont born Aubery had first come to the war front as a lieutenant's attendant, and later sold newspapers among regiments of the Irin Brigade.He had been captured in 1862 ans imprisoned at Libby, but after his exchange he had again taken up selling newspapers, this time amid regiments of the Iron Brigade (vgl. Herdegen/Beaudot: In the Bloody Railroad Cut, a.a.O., S. 243n2)

 

Documents/Literature::

- **Aubery, Doc (Cullen B.): Recollections of a Newsboy in the Army of the Potomac (Milwaukee, Wis., 1900) (Contains the monograph, Echoes of the Marches of the Famous Iron Brigade, 1861-1865)

 

 

Auchmuty, Richard Tylden:

US-+++; Teilnahme am Battle of Fredericksburg im Dezember 1862 (vgl. Gallagher u.a.: Fredericksburg, a.a.O., S. 52 mit Anm. 7, S. 73).

 

Documents/Literature::

- **Auchmuty, Richard Tylden: Letters of Richard Tylden Auchmuty, (Privately Printed)

 

 

Audenried, Joseph C.:

US-Major, aide-de-camp bei Sherman (vgl. Sherman: Memoirs, a.a.O., vol. 2 S. 178; Anm.: bei National Park Soldiers nicht genannt). Im Juli 1864 während der Atlanta Campaign war Capt. Audenried aide-de-camp bei Sherman und traf am 7.7.1864 bei BrigGen Garrard in dessen HQ bei Willeo Creek / nahe Roswell / Ge­orgia ein (vgl. Evans: Sherman's Horsemen, a.a.O., S. 19).

 

 

Augur, Christopher Columbus:

US-MajGen; 10.7.1821 Kendall, Orleans County/NY - † 16.1.1898 Washington/DC.

 

Civil War Union Major General. He graduated from the United States Military Academy in West Point, New York in 1843, placing 16th out of 39 (his classmates included future Union Generals William B. Franklin, Ulysses S. Grant and Joseph J. Reynolds, as well as future Confederate Generals Roswell Ripley, Samuel G. French and Franklin Gardner). His service after graduation was typical, serving in the Mexican War and on the Western American frontier against the Plains Indians. When the Civil War started he had the rank of Captain, 4th United States Infantry in the Regular Army, and served as commandant of cadets at West Point. In May 1861 he was promoted to Major of the newly-raised 13th United States Infantry, but his time with the new regiment as brief. In November 1861 he was promoted to Brigadier General, US Volunteers, and commanded a brigade along the Rappahannock River during the Spring 1862 Peninsular Campaign. In the August 1862 Battle of Cedar Mountain, where the Union forces were soundly defeated by Confederate General Stonewall Jackson, he sustained a severe wound while in command of the II Corps' 2nd Division, but was high­ly commended for his performance and bravery, which led to his promotion to Major General, US Volunteers (and a brevet of Colo­nel, US Regular Army). During his convalesces from his Cedar Mountain wound he served on a commission that investigated Colo­nel Dixon Miles' September 1862 surrender of Harper's Ferry, Virginia. He then served with Major General Nathaniel Banks in ope­rations in Louisiana and Mississippi, leading the left wing of the Union Army that forced the capitulation of Port Hudson, Mississippi in July 1863. He subsequently commanded simultaneously the XXII Corps and the Department of Washington to the end of the war. As commander of the Capital District, he was present when President Abraham Lincoln succumbed to an assassin's bullet, and was detailed to escort the President's body from the Petersen House, where he died, to the White House. When he was mustered out of Volunteer service in September 1866, he received the brevet of Brigadier and Major General, US Regular Army and was promoted to Colonel and commander of the 12th United States Regular Infantry. In 1869 he was advanced to Brigadier General in the Regular service, and he retired with that rank in 1885 (vgl. http://www.findagrave.com).

 

°° mit  Jane Elizabeth Arnold Augur (1827 - 1906) (vgl. http://www.findagrave.com).

 

Photo:

MajGen Christopher C. Augur (vgl. http://www.findagrave.com/)

 

 

August, Otto:

US-Major; aus New York; 45. New Yorker [?] war Major im Stab von O. O. Howard (vgl. Kaufmann: Deutsche im Amerikanischen Bürgerkrieg, a.a.O., S. 480).

 

 

Augustin, Numa:

CS-Col/Aide-de-Camp; zunächst Col, Co. F&S, Orleans Guards Regiment, Louisiana Militia (vgl. National Park Soldiers M378 Roll 1); dann Col/Aide-de-Camp, General and Staff Officers, Non-Regimental Enlisted Men, CSA (vgl. National Park Soldiers M818 Roll 1).

 

Augustin war im Battle of Shiloh Stabsmitglied im Stab von Johnston's Army of the Mississippi; am Morgen des des 6.4.1862 war Augustin mit einer Klärung der Situation an der rechten CS-Flanke beauftragt und stellte eine große Lücke in der CS-Angriffsfront bei Lick Creek fest. aufgrund seiner Meldung ins CS-Hauptquartier ordnete Gen Beauregard den Einsatz von zwei Brigaden der Re­serve-Division Breckenridge auf der rechten CS-Angriffsfront an (vgl. Daniel: Shiloh, a.a.O., S. 196).

 

 

Austine, Alfred L.:

US-Bvt Col und Major US-Army; US-Berufsoffizier; USMA West Point, Class of 1838; served in the Second and Third Seminole Wars, fought in the Mexi­can Wars, and served the Union in a reduced capacity during the War between the States, being sidelined by health problems vgl. http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Gazetteer/Places/America/United_States/Army/USMA/Cullums_Regi- ster/ 965*.html).

 

Major Austine musterte im Civil War die meisten, wenn nicht alle Regimenter in den US-Dienst, die in Vermont in Brattleboro aufge­stellt worden sind (vgl. Ledoux: „Quite ready to be sent somewhere“. The Civil War Letters of Aldace Freeman Walker, a.a.O., S. 22 Anm. 25).

 

 

Austin, Judson L.:

US-Pvt; Co. B, 19th Regiment Michigan Infantry (vgl. National Park Soldiers M545 Roll 12; vgl. Castel: Decision in the West, a.a.O., S. 125).

 

Documents/Literature::

- **Austin, Judson L.: Letters (Ness Collection, Michigan Historical Collections, Bentley Library, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor)

 

 

Austin, John P.:

CS-Col; zunächst Captain, Co. I, 9th Regiment Kentucky Cavalry (CS), dann Major im Regiment (vgl. National Park Soldiers M377 Roll 1); auf seinem Grabstein auf dem Stonewall Confederate Cemetery, LaGrange / Georgia bezeichnet als Col 9 KY Cavalry CSA (Photo bei www.findagrave.com, Abruf v. 9.4.2017); his First Name is 'John P.' (vgl. Johnston: Confederate Military History of Kentucky, a.a.O., S. 163).

 

22.12.1829 - † 20.2.1911, beerd. Stonewall Confederate Cemetery, LaGrange / Georgia (vgl. findagrave.com, Abruf. v. 9.4.2017).

 

Documents/Literature::

- **Austin, J. P.: The Blue and the Gray (Atlanta, 1899)

 

 

Austin, William H.:

US-Pvt; Co. C, 8th Regiment Illinois Infantry (vgl. National Park Soldiers M539 Roll 3; vgl. Hicken: Illinois in the Civil War, a.a.O., S. 393); dann Pvt, Co. H, 8th Regiment Illinois Cavalry (vgl. National Park Soldiers M539 Roll 3); zuletzt 2ndLt, Co. G, 17th Regiment Illinois Cavalry; er trat als Sergeant in das Regiment ein (vgl. National Park Soldiers M539 Roll 3).

 

 

Averell, William Woods:

US-MajGen; 1832-1900; aus New York; West Point 1855 (26/34); US-Berufsoffizier; Mounted Infantry / Cavalry; verwundet in den Indian Wars; eingesetzt an der Frontier und im Garnisonsdienst; 1st Lt 3rd US Cavalry am 14.5.1861; befördert zu Captain der 3rd US Cavalry am 17.7.1862; am 23.8.1861 ernannt zum Col 3rd Pennsylvania Cavalry (vgl. Longacre: Lincoln's Cavalrymen, a.a.O., S. 101; Boatner, a.a.O., S. 34). Von Oktober 1861 bis März 1862 kommandierte er eine Cavalry Brigade in der Verteidigung von Wa­shington. BrigGen 26.9.1862; BrigGen Averell' Cavalry wurde zur Verfolgung von Stuart's Chambersburg Raid vom 9.-13.10.1862 eingesetzt, und legte mit seiner Brigade 200 Meilen in nur 4 Tagen zurück (vgl. Alexander, Edward Porter: Military Memoirs, a.a.O., S. 277). Averell reagierte jedoch zu langsam und zu unentschieden (vgl. Longacre: Mounted Raids, a.a.O., S. 36).

 

Im Frühjahr 1863 Brigadekommandeur in Stoneman's Kavalleriedivision; Einsatz bei *Kelly's Ford am 17.3.1863 (vgl. Fordney: Sto­neman at Chancel­lorsville, a.a.O., S. 3). Divisionskommandeur 2nd Cavalry Division vom 22.2.1863 – 4.5.1863 in Stoneman's Ca­valrycorps während der Chancellorsville Campaign (vgl. Boatner, a.a.O., S. 35; vgl. Longacre: Mounted Raids, a.a.O., S. 157). Hier­bei sollte Averell mit dem rechten Flügel von Stoneman's Cavalrycorps (bestehend aus Averell's Cavalry Division plus Benjamin F. „Grimes“ *Davis' brigade and a battery of horse artillery) auf Brandy Station an der Orange & Alexandria RR nach Süden vorstoßen und weiter nach Süden über den Rapidan nach Gordonsville (vgl. OR series I, vol. 25, pt. 1, p. 1058; vgl. Longacre: Mounted Raids, a.a.O., S. 157-58).

 

Hierbei sollte Averell mit dem rechten Flügel von Stoneman's Cavalry Corps (bestehend aus Averell's Cavalry Division plus Benja­min F. „Grimes“ *Davis' brigade and a battery of horse artillery) auf Brandy Station an der Orange & Alexandria RR nach Süden vorstoßen und weiter nach Süden über den Rapidan nach Gordonsville (vgl. OR series I, vol. 25, pt. 1, p. 1058; vgl. Longacre: Mounted Raids, a.a.O., S. 157-58).

 

Averell beschreibt das weitere Vorgehen in seinem Report vom 11.5.1863 (vgl. Battles and Leaders III, S. 153): „We encountered the enemy's cavalry, two thousand strong, under General W. F. Lee on the morning of the 30th, and drove it through Culpeper Court House in the direction of Rapidan Station. On the 1st we pressed the enemy's cavalry and pushed our right to within three miles of Orange Court House in an effort to dislodge the enemy from a strong position occupied by him on the south bank of the Rapidan, af­ter he had crossed and destroyed the bridge. While thus engaged on the morning of the 2d we were recalled to the Army of the Poto­mac at U.S. Ford (Furt über den Rappahannock westlich von Fredericksburg) by orders from General Hooker. We reached *Ely's Ford (Furt über den Rapidan; s. Ortsglossar Stichwort Ely's Ford mit Karte) after dark on the evening of the 2d, and were fired upon by enemy's infantry from the opposite bank. A part of McIntosh's brigade forded the river, dismounted, drove away the enemy, some of the 13th North Carolina, and captured some prisoners. We early on the morning of the 3d we crossed the Rapidan and entered the right of our lines“.

 

Diese Meldung ist nicht ganz zutreffend. Vielmehr teilte Averell am Abend des 30.4.1863 Stoneman mit, daß er nicht nach Gordons­ville vorgestoßen war, sondern sich noch bei Rapidan Station aufhielt (nur 24,7 mi vom Ausgangspunkt Kelly's Ford entfernt). Aver­ell war offenbar in großer Sorge von Jeb Stuart's Cavalry umzingelt zu werden, dessen Stärke er stark übertrieb. Auch Stoneman's Be­fehlsgebung war alles andere als in Ordnung. Statt Averell zu beruhigen und klare Ziele zu setzen, waren Stoneman's Depeschen der­art vague and ambiguous, that Averell received the impression he should remain indefinitely at Rapidan Station, holding Rooney Lee's CS-Cavalry, die vor Averell nach Süden ausgewichen war, auf Abstand. Later Stoneman claimed that he had instructed Averell to make short work of the enemy, then form a juncture with Stoneman's riding column. Folge dieser befehlsmäßigen „Glanzleistung“ war, daß Averell 1 ½ Tage am Rapidan dahin trödelte. Endlich erfuhr am 2.5.1863 Oberbefehlshaber Hooker hiervon und befahl Averell zur Hauptarmee zurückzukehren. Sogar diese Anordnung did not rouse Averell into action; a second directive was necessary to pry Averell loose from his position and send him moving twenty miles eastward toward Hooker's side (vgl. Longacre: Mounted Raids of the Civil War, a.a.O., S. 161).

 

Am 3.5.1863 ent­zog ihm *Hooker das Kommando, als Averell von der Aufklärung auf der Flanke der Army of the Potomac zurück­kehrte, wegen 'im­practical for Cavalry Work' (vgl. Boatner, a.a.O., S. 35) und ersetzte ihn durch BrigGen Alfred Pleasonton. Selbst der geduldige Hooker konnte Averell's Inkompetenz nicht länger hinnehmen und dessen fortwährende Ausreden weiter entschuldigen (vgl. Longacre: Mounted Raids of the Civil War, a.a.O., S. 162).

 

Averell’s Raid on the Virginia & Tennessee Railroad (November 1863) und Teilnahme am Crook-Averell Raid on the Virginia & Ten­nessee Railroad (May 1864). Ende September 1864 wurde Averell von Phil *Sheridan das Kommando entzogen, wegen fehlender Aggressivität bei der Verfolgung von Early während Sheridan's Shenandoah Valley Campaign. Für seine Einsätze bei Kelley's Ford, Droop Mountain, Salem Expedition, Moorefield and War Service wurde Averell zum MajGen befördert. Resigned am 18.5.1865. Averell war US-Generalkonsul in Kanada von 1866-69; später Präsident einer großen Manufacturing Com­pany. A prominent inventor in several industrial fields (steel, asphalt, paving, electrical power), he acquired considerabel wealth (vgl. Boatner, a.a.O., S. 35).

 

Photo:

- Col William W. Averell, 3rd Penn Cavalry, and Staff (vgl. http://www.civil-war.net/cw_images/files/images/240.jpg )

- Davis / Wiley: Photographic History. Vol 2. Vicksburg to Appomattox, a.a.O., S. 322 (als Col bei Kelly's Ford)

 

Documents/Literature::

- **Averell, William Woods: Correspondence, Diaries, 1861-63, and Memoirs. New York State Library, Albany

- **Eckert, Edward K. und Nicholas J. Amato, eds.: Ten Years in the Saddle: The Memoir of William Woods Averell (San Rafael, Calif., 1978)

- **Marvel, William: Southwest Virginia in the Civil War: The Battles for Saltville (H. E. Howard 1992 - 2nd Edition). Anm.: General Averell and two thousand cavalry attempted to capture the salt mines here only to be defeated. General Burbridge confronted Bre­ckenridge here and was also beaten with great loss of life on both sides. In one battle the 10th Kentucky Cavalry (Confederate) lost its colonel and nearly every officer above rank of Lieutenant was killed.

- **Rawle, William Brooke (Capt, 3rd PA Cavalry): History of the Third Pennsylvania Cavalry, sixtieth Regiment Pennsylvania Volun­teers in the American Civil War, 1861-1865 (Philadelphia, 1905, 1st Edition). Anm.: Fold Out Maps, Frontis of Gen. Averell - Plates, Portraits, Rosters. Nevins describes this as „An exceptionally full, day-by-day chronicle of the regiment first commanded by William W. Averell; indispensable for an insight into Eastern cavalry operations throughout the four years of war.“.

 

 

Averett, Robert F.:

CS-First Sergeant; Co. G, 48th Regiment Georgia Infantry (vgl. National Park soldiers M226 Roll 3). Averett wurde im Seven-Days-Battle leicht verwundet (vgl. Georgia Weekly Telegraph vom 14.7.1862).

 

 

Avery, Clark Moulton:

CS-Col; zunächst Captain, Co. G, 1st Regiment North Carolina Infantry (6 months, 1861) (vgl. National Park Soldiers M230 Roll 2), später Co. F&S, 33rd Regiment North Carolina Infantry (vgl. National Park Soldiers M230 Roll 2).

 

3.10.1820 Swans Pond, Burke County / NC - † 18.6.1864 an Wundinfektion nach schwerer Verwundung im Battle of Spot­sylvania am 12.5.1864 (http://www.findagrave.com, Abruf vom 15.10.2016); Col. 33rd North Carolina Infantry; bei Kriegsbeginn Capt. Comp. G, 1st North Carolina Infantry; der "Held der Schlacht von New Bern"; er führte 4 Co's der 33rd North Carolina Infantry als Verstärlung der 26th North Carolina Infantry (vgl. Hess: Lee's Tar Heels, a.a.O., S. 13); gefangengenommen und inhaftiert in Fort Columbus / NY (vgl. Speer: Portals to Hell. Military Prisons of the Civil War, a.a.O., S. 65; vgl. Hess: Lee's Tar Heels, a.a.O., S. 15).

 

Im Battle of Gettysburg führte Col Avery von der 33rd North Carolina Infantry am 3.7.1863 die Brigade von BrigGen James Henry Lane (vgl. Gottfried: Brigades of Gettysburg, a.a.O., S. 648), der seinerseits nach der tödlichen Verwundung vom MajGen Pender, dessen Division übernehmen mußte.

 

Photo:

- Col Clark M. Avery (http://www.findagrave.com)

 

 

Avery, Isaac Erwin:

CS-Col; 20.12.1829 - † gef. 3.7.1863 Gettysburg nach tödlicher Verwundung beim Angriff auf Cemetery Ridge als temporary Briga­dekommandeur der Brigade von BrigGen Robert F. Hoke am 2.7.1863. Col 6th North Carolina Infantry Regiment; Avery is most re­membered for a poi­gnant blood-stained note that he wrote as he lay dying on the slopes of Cemetery Hill at Gettysburg.

 

With his state's secession from the Union, Isaac returned to Burke County, and with his brother Alphonso, recruited Company E of the 6th North Carolina Regiment. As captain, Avery commanded the company, which fought in the First Battle of Bull Run and the Battle of Seven Pines. In the summer of 1862, he was promoted to colonel. He was wounded at Gaines' Mill and was out of ac­tion until late in the fall. Avery's recovery caused him to miss the battles at Second Bull Run and Antietam. Following the reorganiza­tion of the army after the Battle of Fredericksburg, the 6th North Carolina was placed under the command of veteran Brig. Gen. Robert F. *Hoke.

 

With Hoke's wounding at the Battle of Chancellorsville in May 1863, Avery temporarily assumed command of the brigade in time for the Gettysburg Campaign. The now 34-year-old Avery led his troops forward on July 1 on a wide sweep north and east of the bo­rough of Gettysburg. Union artillery fire from a knoll near Culp's Hill finally halted his advance. On July 2, Maj. Gen. Jubal A. Early ordered Avery along with the brigade of Brig. Gen. Harry T. Hays to assault eastern Cemetery Hill. Attacking in the early eve­ning, Avery was struck in the neck by a musket ball and fell from his white horse, bleeding badly. Apparently he was alone at the time, and the brigade's attack was delivered without coordination. After the ill-fated charge, the partially paralyzed officer was disco­vered by several of his soldiers. His aide and former business partner, Maj. Samuel Tate of the 6th North Carolina, knelt by his side. Unable to speak from his mortal wound and with his right hand useless from the paralysis, Avery with his left hand scribbled a simple note and gave it to Tate. It said: "Major, tell my father I died with my face to the enemy. I. E. Avery." Avery died the following day in a nearby Gettysburg field hospital. He was initially buried in Riverview Cemetery in Williamsport, Maryland, but later reburied at Washington Confederate Cemetery, part of Rose Hill Cemetery, in Hagerstown, Maryland.

 

Photo:

Col. Isaak Erwin Avery (vgl. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Isaac_E._Avery)

 

 

Avery, Phineas O.:

US-Corporal; Co. I, 4th Regiment Illinois Cavalry (vgl. National Park Soldiers M539 Roll 3).

 

Documents/Literature::

- **Avery, Phineas O.: History of the Fourth Illinois Cavalry Regiment (Humboldt, Nebrasca, 1903)

 

 

Avirett, James B.:

CS-Chaplain; 7th Virginia Cavalry; Regimental chaplain und Ashby's early biographer (vgl. Tanner: Stonewall in the Valley, a.a.O., S. 317).

 

Documents/Literature::

- **Avirett, James B. (Chaplain, 7th VA Cavalry): The Memoirs of General Turner Ashby and His Compeers (Baltimore: Delby and Du­lany, 1867; reprint Olde Soldier Books 1987); 408 pp; Letters; Appendix. Nevins says of this "This collection of personal re­miniscences is the best source of material on the daring Confederate chief whose death in 1862 was a severe blow to the South."

 

 

Ayars, Peter B.:

US-1stLt; Co. E, 99th Regiment Pennsylvania Infantry; rank in: Corporal (vgl. National Park Soldiers M554 Roll 3); original filed under 'Ayers'

 

Documents/Literature::

- **Ayars, Peter B.: „The 99th Pennsylvania.“ National Tribune, February 4, 1886

- **Bradley, Thomas W. and Peter B. Ayars: „At Gettysburg.“ National Tribune, 4 February 1886

 

 

Ayers, James T.:

US-+++; Rekrutierungsoffizier in Illinois; A white Kentuckian and Methodist Preacher, Ayers joined an Illinois Regiment and beca­me a recruiter for the U.S. Colored Troops in the Tennessee Valley. His diary, edited by the noted Black Historian John Hope Fran­klin, reveals the lack of interest of many slaves and freedman in joining the U.S. Colored Troops.

 

Documents/Literature::

- **Franklin, John Hope (ed.): The Diary of James T. Ayers: Civil War Recruiter (Illinois State Historical Society, Springfield / Illinois, 1947)

 

 

Ayling, Augustus D.:

US-Lt; 29th Massachusetts Infantry. Ayling witnessed the battle between the Monitor and Merrimac, fought in the Peninsular Cam­paign, Vicksburg, and Knoxville where his unit helped repel Longstreet's troops

 

Documents/Literature::

- **Ayling, Augustus D.: A Yankee at Arms: The Diary of Lieutenant Augustus D. Ayling, 29th Massachusetts Volunteers (Univ Tennes­see Press), 320 pp. Edited by Charles Herberger, 26 Illustrations, 5 Maps

 

 

Ayres, Romeyn B.:

US-++Gen; Captain Ayres führte im Juli 1861 Batterie E 3rd US-Artillery (bekannt als 'Sherman's Battery'), die zur 3rd Brigade Wil­liam T. Sherman in 1st Division Daniel Tyler gehörte. Teilnahme am Skirmish von *Blackburn's Ford am 18.7.1861 während der Ma­nassas Campaign McDowell's (vgl. Davis: Battle of Ball Run, a.a.O., S. 115-16, 117, 118, 121, 122, 130, 258-59; Longstreet: From Manassas to Appomattox, a.a.O., S. 38).

 

 

Ayres, Samuel:

US-Chaplain, 7th Kansas Cavalry (Jennison's Jayhawkers) (vgl. Starr, Jennison's Jayhawkers, a.a.O., S. 86).

 

Documents/Literature::

- **Ayres, Samuel: Samuel Ayres Collections (Kansas State Historical Society, Topeka)

 

 

Axt, Ferdinand:

US-Pvt; Co. G, 20th Regiment New York Infantry (vgl. National Park Soldiers M551 Roll 4).

 

 

Axtett, Ferdinand:

US-Pvt; Co. F, 5th Regiment Ohio Infantry (vgl. National Park Soldiers M552 Roll 3); original filed under 'Ferdinand Axetell', auch 'Axtelt'.

 

 

Axt, Gottfried Dr.:

US-Surgeon; 20th Regiment New York Infantry (vgl. Kaufmann: Deutsche im amerikanischen Bürgerkrieg, a.a.O., S. 480; Anm. bei National Park Soldiers nicht genannt).

 

 

 

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